Selasa, 11 Oktober 2011

Peranan Macam macam Agama dan Kerukunan Umat Beragama (Kelas X)

Perangan macam macam agama dan Kerukunan Umat Beragama
1.       Macam macam Agama
2.       Munculnya Agama-agama
3.       Pengertian kata AGAMA
4.       Peranan Agama
5.       Kerukunan Hidup Beragama
6.       Toleransi Kehidupan Beragama
7.       Brahmajala Sutta
8.       Inklusivisme, Eklusivisme, Pluralisme/ Paralisme
9.       Tujuan hidup beragama Buddha
10.   Ciri Khas Agama Buddha
11.   Lambang Lambanga Agama



MACAM MACAM AGAMA

Di bumi ini, ada banyak sekali agama agama besar, dengan jumlah pengikut yang sangat banyak. Beberapa agama sudah mendunia (penganutnya ada di seluruh penjuru dunia), sebagian hanya berkembang di daerah tertentu saja, bahkan penganutnya sama sekali tidak ditemukan di negara/daerah lain. Agama/keyakinan seperti ini sering disebut sebagai agama lokal. Beberapa agama besar yang penganutnya berkembanga ke seluruh dunia antar lain:
No
Agama
Asal
Guru Besar
Kitab Suci
Hari Raya
1
Buddha
India
Buddha, Siddharta Gotama
Tipitaka
Waisak, Asaddha, Kathina, Magha Puja
2
Hindu
India
Bhagavan Vyasa
Veda
Nyepi, Galungan, Kuningan, Pagarwesi, Saraswati, Siwa Latri,  Odalan di Pura pura,
3
Islam
Arab
Nabi Muhammad
Al-Quran
Idhul Fitri, Idhul Adha, Isra Miraj,
4
Kristen
Bethelehm
Yesus
Injil
Natal, Kenaikan Isa Almasih,
5
Katholik




6
Sinto
Jepang



7
Thao
China
Lau Tse/Lo Cu
Tao Te Ceng

8
Konghucu
China
Meng Cu/ Beng Cu/ Mencius
Su Si & Ngo Keng

9
Kejawen
Jawa

Primbon Jawa
Satu Suro
10







MUNCULNYA AGAMA AGAMA

Ada beberapa agama besar di dunia seperti yang kita kenal sekarang ini; Buddha, Hindu, Islam, Katholik, Kristen, Sinto, Konghucu, Thao, dan lain lain. Agama agama tersebut tidaklah muncul langsung besar dengan sekian banyak pengikut, akan tetapi melalui proses yang sangat panjang. Berbagai kendala dan hambatan yang dihadapinya membuat agama agama tersebut semakin tangguh dan berkembang atau sebaliknya semakin dilupakan orang.

Munculnya agama dimulai dari seorang yang luar biasa, mempunyai pendapat dan ide yang berbeda dari yang lain, mengutarakan tentang hidup dan kehidupan. Beberapa orang terdekatnya mendengar, merenungkan den meyakini apa yang telah disampaikanNya, kemudian menjadilah pengikutnya. Pengikutnya semakin banyak dan kian berkembang, menyeber dari satu daerah ke daerah lain, dari satu negeri ke negeri lain dan akhirnya berkembanga sampai ke seluruh penjuru dunia.

Ide, pendapat, gagasan, tentang hidup dan kehidupan tersebut didapat dengan berbagai cara: 
1.       Dengan merenung, mengira ngira, mengandai andai kemudian menghubungkannya dengan pengalaman hidupnya atau orang lain, supaya tampak seperti masuk akal.
2.       Bermeditasi, dan melihat kehidupan sebelumnya (tapi sangat terbatas) lalu dihubungkan dengan kehidupan sekarang, sehingga tampak seperti masuk akal
3.       Menerima bisiskan, informasi, dan segala sesuatu yang berkenaan dengan hidup dan kehidupan melalui para deva (malaikat) dalam kondisi batin tertentu (semedhi, tidur).  Hal ini sering dikatakan sebagai Wahyu, dalam bahasa jawa sering disebut sebagai wangsit.
Wahyu tersebut kemudian disampaikan (disabdakan) kepada orang orang terdekat dihubungkan dengan kehidupan sosial setempat dan permasalahan yang dihadapi sehingga tampak masuk akal.
4.       Dengan bersamadhi/meditasi, hingga ia dapat melihat kehidupan kehidupan nya yang lampau sampait tak terbatas, melihat kelahiran dan kematian setiap makhluk, melihat penyebab kelahiran kembali, melihat cara untuk menghentikan kelahiran kembali, melihat akibat dari perbuatan setiap makhluk di kehidupan berikutnya, melihat sampai berkali kali bumi ini berevolosi, melihat apa yang akan terjadi pada bumi ini. Kemudian dihubungkan dengan permasalahan sosial dan permasalahan yang dihadapi. Banyak orang yang yakin, dan mengikuti ajarannya, hingga menyebar ke seluruh penjuru dunia.




PENGERTIAN KATA AGAMA

AGAMA :  A + GAMA
                    A = TIDAK,   GAMA = KACAU
AGAMA:  MENCARI SESUATU YANG TIDAK KACAU,
                  KEDAMAIAN, KETENANGAN, KETENTRAMAN, KEBAHAGIAAN

Agama  :  Ajaran tentang filsafat kehidupan yang menuntun setiap pengikutnya untuk mendapatkan kedamaian, ketentraman, ketenangan, kebahagiaan hidup dalam kehidupan ini maupun kehidupan selanjutnuya.



Syarat sebuah agama:
1.       Adanya Kitab suci
2.       Adanya guru besar/guru agung/penemu
3.       Adanya pengikut/umat yang mengkui
4.       Adanya tempat ibadah
5.       Mengakui Adanya Tuhan
6.       Mengajarkan surga dan neraka
7.       Mengajarkan kehidupan setelah kehidupan sekarang (akhirat)
8.       Mengajarkan kedamaian, kerukunan, toleransi, kebaikan untuk semua orang




PERANAN AGAMA AGAMA

Agama   sangat besar peranannya dalam menciptakan ketertiban dan perdamaian dunia, walaupun pada kasus kasus tertentu justru agama menjadi sumber dari teror dan peperangan.  Pada dasarnya agama mengajarkan kedamaian dan ketentraman, kerukunan dan toleransi, kebaikan dan kasih sayang, ibadah dan spiritualisme, etika dan moralitas luhur, pengendalian diri dan meditasi.

Dengan nilai nilai luhur yang termuat dalam setiap ajaran agama, seseorang akan terketuk hatinya untuk tidak berbuat kejahatan, untuk malu untuk melakukan kejahatan, akan takut akan akibat dari perbuatan jahatnya (Hiri dan Otapa). Takut Neraka dan selanjutnya ingin masuk surga. Nilai nilai agama sanggup menjaga setiap orang yang meyakininya  untuk mematuhi aturan yang berlaku dan menjaga ucapan serta perbuatan supaya tidak merugikan pihak lain, walaupun tidak ada orang lain yang mengetahui, tidak ada apara hukum yang mengawasinya.

Kita bisa bayangkan, bagaimana jika tidak ada ajaran agama di muka bumi ini. Kekacauan, keributan, kejahatan, kekerasan, tindakan semena-mena, diskriminasi, ekploitasi, pemerkosaan, pembunuhan, pencurian,    akan terjadi dimana mana. Hanya sedikit saja orang yang tidak melakukan kejahatan. Hal ini terjadi karena setiap orang sudah tidak takut lagi akan akibat dari kejahatan yang ia lakukan, karena memang mereka tidak pernah memahaminya, tidak tahu tentang sorga dan neraka.

“Apa Yang Akan Kamu Lakukan Pada Orang Lain/Makhluk Lain, Bayangkan Saja Bagaimana Jika Orang Lain Melakukan Hal Yang Sama Pada Dirimu” Maukah?


Tugas:
1.       Mengapa ada orang orang yang melakukan teror dan kekerasan atas dasar agama/keyakinan?
2.       Jelaskan mengapa agama menjadi hal yang utama dalam menjaga ketertiban dunia?
3.       Sebutkan syarat syarat sebuah agama
4.       Mengapa bisa terjadi keributan atau perselisihan intern atau antar umat beragama?


KERUKUNAN HIDUP BERAGAMA

Semua makhluk, setiap orang mendambakan kedamaian, kerukunan, dan kebahagiaan. Begitu pula dalam kehidupan umat beragama, semua agama mendambakan kerukunan, kedamaian dan ketentraman bersama.  Dalam Kehidupan beragama, Pemerintah Indonesia mencanangkan Tiga Kerukunan Umat Beragama:
1.       Kerukunan intern umat beragama;
Antar sesama penganut agama haruslah dapat menjalin kerukunan dan kerjasama yang baik. Baik dalam bidang sosial, kekeluargaan, ekonomi, maupun dalam bidang keagamaan.
Perselisihan sering terjadi karena adanya perbedaan pendapat antara penganut, yang mana salah satu atau kedua belah pihak tidan mau berendah hati untuk menghargai dan menerima pendapat pihak lain.
2.       Kerukunan antar Umat Beragama;
Di Indonesia ada enam agama yang resmi diakui oleh pemerintah. Antara penganut agam yang satu dengan yang lainnya, haruslah tercipta kerukunan. Perbedaan ajaran, doktrin, ibadah, dan prinsip prinsip masing masing agama pasti berbeda. Tetapi, ada satu hal yang dapat diambil kesamaannya, yaitu semua agama pada prinsipnya mengajarkan tentang kebaikan, kebahagiaan, etika moral, hidup rukun dan kedamaian, toleransi, kebersamaan dan lain lain.
Jika ada suatu pertemuan antar agama, janganlah pernah membicarakan ajaran yang memang jelas jelas berbeda, apa lagi membuat sama, memaksa agama yang lain mengikuti prinsip yang kita anut. Pasti akan terjadi keributan. Buatlah perbedaan untuk memperindah dan memperkaya budaya bangsa.
3.       Kerukunan antar agama dengan pemerintah.
Antara pengurus lembaga keagamaan, pengurus tempat ibadah, umat beragama haruslah terjalin kerjasama yang baik denan pemerintah dalam meningkatkan moralitas, dan keutuhan bangsa. Agama seharusnya menjadi suatu alat pemersatu bangsa, bukan sebaliknya. Pemerintah wajib memfasilitasi kebutuhan  dan sarana kehidupan beragama, membina dan membuat peraturan peraturan/hukum yang berkenaan dengan agama.



Tugas:
1.       Tuliskan tugas tugas pemerintah dalam kehidupan beragama
2.       Tuliskan beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan untuk dapat menciptakan kerukunan antar umat beragama
3.       Tuliskan beberapa hal yang dapat menciptakan kerukunan intern umat beragama


TOLERANSI KEHIDUPAN BERAGAMA

Toleransi berarti: memaklumi, menerima kekurangan/kelebihan, menerima perbedaan, memaklumi perbedaan, tidak mengucilkan/menyalahkan yang bebeda, menghargai pendapat, menghargai perbedaan, menghargai kepentingan yang lain, tidak membeda-bedakan.

Toleransi adalah istilah dalam konteks sosial, budaya dan agama yang berarti sikap dan perbuatan yang melarang adanya diskriminasi terhadap kelompok-kelompok yang berbeda atau tidak dapat diterima oleh mayoritas dalam suatu masyarakat. Contohnya adalah toleransi beragama, dimana penganut mayoritas dalam suatu masyarakat mengizinkan keberadaan agama-agama lainnya (wikipedia.org)

Dalam kehidpan beragama, toleransi merupakan hal yang paling penting untuk menciptakan kerukunan kehidpan  beragama, karena dengan adanya rasa dan sikap yang toleran terhadap yang lain, maka kita tidak akan kita akan bersedia menerima pebedaan dan sangat menghargai  penganut agama lain dalam hal: ajaran, ibadah, kebiasaan, dan lain lain, tidak akan pernah memaksakan sikap dan kehendak kita kepada orang yang menganut agama lain dalam kehidupan beragama.

Kata yang bertentangan dengan toleransi adalah Diskriminasi. Diskriminasi merujuk kepada pelayanan yang tidak adil terhadap individu tertentu, di mana layanan ini dibuat berdasarkan karakteristik yang diwakili oleh individu tersebut. Diskriminasi merupakan suatu kejadian yang biasa dijumpai dalam masyarakat manusia, ini disebabkan karena kecenderungan manusian untuk membeda-bedakan yang lain.

Ketika seseorang diperlakukan secara tidak adil karena karakteristik suku, antargolongan, kelamin, ras, agama dan kepercayaan, aliran politik, kondisi fisik atau karateristik lain yang diduga merupakan dasar dari tindakan diskriminasi
Tugas:
1.       Tuliskan 3 contoh sikap yang menunjukkan sikap toleransi dalam kehidupan beragama
2.       Tuliskan akibat yang mungkin akan muncul jika tidak sikap toleransi dalam kehidupan beragama.
3.       Tuliskan beberapa contoh sikap diskriminasi yang terjadi dalam masyarakat.

BRAHMA JALA SUTTA
Eighteen beliefs about the past
In the second part, the Buddha explains the major beliefs of ascetics in India. He begins by saying, "Monks, there are other things which are very deep (profound), very hard to understand, very difficult to perceive, so holy and sacred, unreached by means of mind, so subtle, that they are only to be understood and experienced by the wise. These things were perceived clearly, seen clearly and were discarded by the Tathagata, and by this act based on the truth that people praise and revered Tathagatha. What are those things?"
[edit] Eternalistic belief
Eternalism is described in the sutta as the belief which is based upon the past, and holds that the universe (loka) and the soul or self (attha) are eternal as a 'rock mountain or strong-fastened pole'. The world doesn't create new souls and therefore, the souls are living in an eternal cycle of death and rebirth, differing only in name, location, and time. These kind of beliefs have four origins:
  • 1. Ascetics and Brahmins who have reached a high level of meditation; due to this achievement, they were able to remember from one to tens of thousands of their past lives.
  • 2. Ascetics and Brahmins who have reached the spiritual achievements which provided them access to memories of one to ten iterations of the Earth's formation, evolution, and destruction.
  • 3. Ascetics and Brahmins who have managed to recall the Earth's evolutionary process from ten to forty times.
The abovementioned ascetics and Brahmins recalled how they had name, family, heirs, food, joy and sadness, then death and rebirth in their past lives. Based on their experience, they concluded that the universe and the soul must be eternal.
  • 4. Ascetics and Brahmins who use logic and inference and come to the conclusion that the soul and universe are eternal.
The Buddha said that there are 18 types of eternalistic belief, all based on one of these four origins. All of the followers of these beliefs defended and clung to their faith and did not give credence to other faiths.
[edit] Semi-eternalistic belief
The semi-eternalistic belief is described as belief that is based on the past, where the dualistic notion is asserted that there are things which are eternal and things which are not eternal. There are four ways these beliefs come to be faith, where one believer never acknowledged the other beliefs:
The Buddha told a story about a time when the Earth was not yet formed. The sentient beings in this time normally lived in the realm of Abhassara, in radiant light and nourished by celestial joy. Then came a time when the Earth was in the process of forming yet still uninhabitable. One of these beings in the Abhassara realm died (due to the exhaustion of his karma) and was reborn in the higher realm called the Brahma realm and lived alone in the palace there. From living alone for so long a time, this being grew distressed and longed for a companion.
He then uttered, "O, let it be that another being may come here and accompany me." At the same time as the utterance, a being in the Abhassara realm died (due to the exhaustion of his good karma) and was reborn in the Brahma realm as his follower, but in many ways, similar to his feature.[clarification needed]
Seeing this happen, the Brahma being thought, "I am Brahma, Mahābrahmā, the Almighty, Omniscient, the Lord of All, Creator, Master of all creatures. I am the source of all life, Father to everything which exists and will come to exist. These creatures are my creations. How can I conclude this? Because, just as I was thinking, "Let it be that another being may come here and accompany me", then my wish made that being come into existence."
Beings that came after thought the same thing. They worshipped and revered the Brahma because, "He was here even before I existed! Surely he is the Lord and Creator of All." In the Brahma realm, the first being had longer and more powerful features than the latter coming beings. So, a probability existed that the latter being died in the Brahma realm, and then was reborn as a human. This human abandoned worldly affairs and became an ascetic, then by his devotion and practice, achieved the power to remember his one past life. As he recalled it, he came to the conclusion that creatures, including himself, are not eternal, had limited age, were vulnerable to change, but that Brahma is eternal, ageless, and changeless.
The second semi-eternalistic belief came from ascetics who were once Khiddapadosika gods, celestial beings that were too busy to experience desire-based joy and fun, forgot to take their nutriments and therefore, died. As they were reborn as ascetics and achieved the ability to remember their past life, they came to a conclusion analogous to the 'Fall from Grace': "If only we were not so greedy and overzealous in our previous life, if only we had been able to control ourselves, we would not have suffered death. Now that we had made this error, we have to suffer this mortal life". Here, they concluded that the gods were eternal, and others were not.
The third semi-eternalistic belief came from the Manopadosika gods. These were the gods who always envied the other gods. This illness of mind caused their death. In the same cycle, they were reborn as ascetic Manopadosika gods, achieved the ability to remember their past life, and came to the conclusion, "Had we not been envious, we would have stayed strong and intelligent. We would never have died or fallen forever from the realm of gods.".
The fourth semi-eternalistic belief is based on logic and reflection. The people who embraced this belief concluded their faith based on their thoughts and logics as follow: "Here is what is called (atta) of eyes, nose, tongue, and our physical body, which are always changed. But, there is also atta of mind: the state of mind, awareness of 'atta', which is eternal.".
All of the followers of these beliefs defended and clung to their faith and didn't believe in other faiths.
[edit] The Universe
The beliefs on the universe is based on the speculation about the infinite or the limited nature of the universe. There are four ways these beliefs were expressed:
  • 1. The universe is infinite.
  • 2. The universe is limited.
  • 3. The universe is horizontally limited but vertically infinite.
  • 4. The universe is neither infinite or limited, nor not infinite or limited.
The source of these beliefs came from two reasons:
  • 1. The frame of mind which formed these beliefs came from the object of focus of meditation taken by the ascetics who managed to reach a deep level of meditation and came to the conclusion that the world is infinite (if they used infinity as the object of meditation), or limited (if they imagined the object of their focus to be limited).
  • 2. The people who used logic and thought and concluded that the world must be neither infinite nor limited but also neither not infinite nor not limited.
All of the followers of these beliefs defended and clung to their faith and didn't believe in other faiths.
[edit] Ambiguous Evasion
The concept of ambiguous evasion or eel-wriggling (Pali: Amaravikkhepa) is introduced in the Brahmajala sutta. When hearing Buddhist teachings, the Buddha claims that people would react with four forms of ambiguous evasion:
  1. Evasion out of fear or hatred of making false claims.
  2. Evasion out of fear or hatred of attachment.
  3. Evasion out of fear or hatred of debate.
  4. Evasion out of fear or hatred of admitting ignorance.
In other words, when a person would hear the dharma, they would respond, "I don't know. Maybe it is true. Maybe it is not true. I can't say it's true because I don't know and I can't deny it's true because I don't know."
The idea is that the person isn't considering the arguments presented (see Kalama Sutta), but stubbornly adhering to irrational agnosticism out of feelings of fear or hatred.
[edit] Non-causality beliefs
The Non-causality beliefs stated that the Universe and the Souls happened coincidentally. The proponents of these beliefs claimed that there was/were no reason/s behind the creation of Universe and the Identity/Self.
These beliefs were expressed because of two possibilities:
  • 1 There were gods called assannasatta, which had only body and no mental will. The absence of mental will in this state was due to the nature of repressed thoughts, not the ultimate absence of thoughts. As they died in the god realm, there was a possibility that they were reborn as ascetics who achieved the ability to recall just one past life.
Here, they concluded upon their past life that, "Before this, there were no Atta and Loka. So, the Atta and Loka were created without a cause. They simply arise spontaneously. Why do I deem so? Because I didn't exist and now I do exist."
  • 2. The ascetics who based their thoughts on logic and thinkings, and concluded that the Soul and the Universe happened without a cause.
All of the followers of these beliefs defended and clung on their faith and didn't believe in another faiths.
[edit] Forty-four beliefs about the future
There are ascetics who based their beliefs on the future. The proponents of one of these beliefs, adhered that:
[edit] Perception's existence after death
  • A.the perception still exists after death. The difference of beliefs were described that after death, the Atta:
    • 1. possessed physical shape (rupa)
    • 2. possessed no shape/immaterial (arupa)
    • 3. both had physical shape some had not (rupa and arupa)
    • 4. Infinite
    • 5. Limited
    • 6. Both Infinite and limited
    • 7. neither Infinite nor Limited
    • 8. had a certain form of consciousness
    • 9. had several form of consciousness
    • 10.had infinite consciousness
    • 11.had limited consciousness
    • 12.always in joy/blissful state
    • 13.always in suffering state
    • 14.Both in joy and suffering
    • 15.neither joyful nor suffering
  • B. the Perception vanished after death. The difference of beliefs were described that after death, the Atta was devoid of perception after dead but:
    • 1. possessed physical shape (rupa)
    • 2. possessed no physical shape (arupa)
    • 3. Both had shape and no shape
    • 4. Neither had shape nor had no shape
    • 5. Limited
    • 6. Unlimited
    • 7. Both limited and unlimited
    • 8. Neither limited nor infinite
  • C. Neither there was Perception of No Perception after death. The difference of these beliefs were describe that after death, the Atta was neither devoid of perception nor non-perception, but:
    • 1. possessed physical shape (rupa)
    • 2. possessed no physical shape (arupa)
    • 3. Both had shape and no shape
    • 4. Neither had shape nor had no shape
    • 5. Limited
    • 6. Unlimited
    • 7. Both limited and unlimited
    • 8. Neither limited nor infinite
All of the followers of these beliefs defended and clung on their faith and didn't believe in another faiths.
[edit] Annihilation (nihilism) beliefs
The proponent of these beliefs declared that after death, existence simply vanished (Atta vanished). These beliefs were described in seven type of authorities and basis:
  • 1. that the Atta was created from the union of father and mother's essence, composed of four elements (dhatu) and on the death, these elements ceased to exist. By this manner, Atta become non-existent.
  • 2. that not only the (1) but the physical-related desire of the celestial gods, who had physical shape and take nourishment, which also cease to exist after death.
  • 3. that not only the (2), but the attha of Brahma gods, which were shaped of Jhanna mind, and faculties of senses which cease to exist after death.
  • 4. that not only the (3), but also the attha which had transcended the concept of Infinity, where the perception of shape had been surpassed, the perception of contact between mind and object had vanished, not paying attention to major kinds of Perception, which cease to exist after death.
  • 5. that not only the (4), but also the attha which had reached the Realm of Infinity of Consciousness.
  • 6. that not only the (5), but also the attha which had reached Realm of Nothingness.
  • 7. that not only the (6) but also the attha which had reached the realm of neither Perception nor Non-Perception.
All of the followers of these beliefs defended and clung on their faith and didn't believe in another faiths.
[edit] Five beliefs on attainable Nibbana
The proponents of these faiths proposed that Nibbana's state of bliss could be attained in the current life. They based their faith because:
  • 1. The joy coming from the five senses can be enjoyed and attained thoroughly. So, the Nibbana could also be attained.
  • 2. The joy from the five senses were vulnerable to change and mortal. But the joy from the attainment of the first Jhana (Dhyana) can be enjoyed and attained thoroughly. So, with the first Jhana, the Nibbana could also be attained.
  • 3. ..... (same with No.2) but with Second Jhana...
  • 4. ..... (same with No.3) but with Third Jhana...
  • 5. ..... (same with No.4) but with Fourth Jhana. So, the Nibbana could also be attained.
All of the followers of these beliefs defended and clung on their faith and didn't believe in another faiths.
[edit] Buddha's conclusion
"The Tathagata knows these sixty-two views. He also knows the dhamma which surpasses them. Knowing that dhamma, he does not view it in the wrong way. Since he does not view it in the wrong way, he realizes by himself the extinction of defilements (i.e., greed, anger, and ignorance of the Four Ariya Truths).
Buddha finally concludes the exposition of these 'wrong' beliefs by stating that these (62) beliefs, if they are believed, will certainly cause agitations and cravings. It implies that the beliefs come to conclusion due to the inability to see the truth, as they are seized by craving (clinging), agitated by longing (feeling).
The Buddha further explains that the beliefs are originated from Contact (Phassa) as the cause. The contact is a phenomenon when the perception recognised an object beyond our Self. Then, from this brief (like lightning in the sky, Nagasena analogued in Milinda Panha) event, rise up feelings.
Buddha states that there are no possibilities of feeling without contact. Thus, according to the law of Twelve Related Chain of Cause and Effects (Pratitya-samutpada), the people who believe in one of many of these sixty-two beliefs, will end up in round cycle of sufferings; as they have not found the truth on the cease of sufferings. Due to their faith, they will experience feelings as a result of repeated contact through the six sense bases. In them feeling gives rise to craving; craving gives rise to clinging; clinging gives rise to current existence (upapatti bhava) and the kammic causal process (kamma bhava); the kammic causal process gives rise to rebirth; and rebirth gives rise to ageing, death, grief, lamentation, pain, distress and despair.
The Buddha states that Monks who have realized and understood the origin of contact of the six senses, and escaped the round of sufferings, would see Dhamma (Truth) of Precepts (Sila), Concentration (Samadhi) and Wisdom (Pańńa) which surpassed all the wrong beliefs.
The Buddha then takes an analogy of a fisherman using a fine-meshed net to catch the fish in the pond. The Buddha assumes the fish as the ascetics who clung on their beliefs, as they will rise and sink in the pond, but still in the end caught unavoidable by the net. Where as the Buddha, who stand outside the net has found the truth and ends the round cycle of sufferings.
Thus ends the Brahmajala Sutta with this quotation:
"When the Bhagava had delivered this discourse, the Venerable Ananda addressed him thus: "Marvellous indeed, Venerable Sir! Extraordinary indeed, Venerable Sir! What is the name of this exposition of the dhamma?"
"Ananda!" said the Bhagava, "Bear in mind that this exposition of the dhamma is called Atthajala, the Net of Essence, as well as Dhammajala, the Net of the Dhamma, as well as Brahmajala, the Net of Perfect Wisdom, as well as Ditthijala, the Net of Views, as well as Anuttarasangama Vijaya, the Incomparable Victory in Battle." Thus said the Bhagava.




Inklusivisme, Eklusivisme, Pluralisme/ Paralisme

Dalam kehidupan beragama dikenal suatu istilah inklusivisme, eksklusivisme, dan prualisme.

Inklusivisme berarti  suatu pandangan atau pendapat yang menyatakan bahwa selain kebenaran yang terdapat dalam ajaran agama yang kita anut, juga mengakui kebenaran yang ada pada ajaran agama lain.  Ajaran tentang surga, atau neraka, dalil dalil, hukum hukum, atau doktrin apapun pada ajaran agama lain kita harus menghargainya, memberikan hak pada orang lain untuk meyakini dan menjalaninya. Akan tetapi kita tidak perlu mengikuti atau meyakininya kalau memang bertentangan atau tidak cocok dengan keyakinan kita. Jika sesuai atau cocok, tidak ada salahnya untuk melaksanakannya.  Paham ini membuat seorang pemeluk agama menunjukkan sikap yang menghargai  penganut agama lainnya, toleransi yang tinggi. Yang salah bukan agamanya atau ajarannya, tetapi yang adalah orangnya, salah dalam menerapkan atau mengintepretasikan ajaran agama yang dianutnya. 

Ekslusivisme berarti suatu pandangan atau pendapat yang tidak mengakui adanya kebenaran pada ajaran agama lain. Apapun yang diajarakan dalam agama lain, dibantah secara mentah, ditolak dan tidak diakui kebenaran yang ada didlamnya. Pandangan ini membuat seeorang untuk semakin anti terhadap agama lain, tidak punya rasa toleransi, cenderung bersikap diskriminasi. Banyak aksi kekerasan atas nama agama dilakukan oleh kelompok-kelompok orang  yang menganut paham eksklusivisme.

Pluralisme/Paralisme suatu paham atau pandangan yang karena menganggap adanya kebenaran pada setiap ajaran agama, maka setiap kebenaran itu digabungkan, dicampur aduk sehingga menjadi suatu paham baru. Hal ini cenderung membuat agama baru/aliran baru yang mempunyai ajaran yang berbeda dari agama yang dianut sebelumnya, tetapi atas nama agama yang dianut sebelumnya.


TUJUAN HIDUP BERAGAMA
Agama merupakan falsafah/pandangan hidup, cara hidup, cara atau etika atau aturan dalam menjalani kehidupan supaya hidup kita lebih berarti, lebih bermakna, lebih berbahagia.
Menganut agama bukanlah kewajiban, tetapi merupakan HAK bagi setiap orang untuk menganut satu agama manapun atau tidak menganut agama  sama sekali.

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